The cost of living in Germany is fairly reasonable compared to other countries in western Europe, although it is more expensive than its eastern European neighbours and many other parts of the world.
Germany’s standard of living, public transport, healthcare and education systems are excellent and shopping bills in major German cities are often significantly less than other major European cities including Paris, London, Rome, Brussels and Zurich. In terms of quality of life and well-being, Germany ranks above average in the OECD Better Life Index.
The cost of living in Germany naturally depends on your lifestyle and the city, or area of a city, in which you live. This guide provides an overview of the costs of living in Germany, including average costs for housing, groceries, education, health insurance, public transport and more.
This guide to Germany’s cost of living includes:
- General cost of living in Germany
- Standard of living in Germany
- Cost of housing in Germany
- Utility costs in Germany
- Cost of public transport in Germany
- Costs to study in Germany
- Cost of childcare in Germany
- Healthcare costs in Germany
- Cost of groceries in Germany
- Food costs in Germany
- Tax costs in Germany
- Social security and pension costs in Germany
According to the Federal Statistics Office, the household expenditure in Germany averages €859 a month, with Germans allocating around 36% of their consumption budget to housing, energy and maintenance.
On average, you should expect to pay from €7–€12 for lunch in an average bar, café or restaurant or up to €5 for a sandwich or bakery snack. A cup of coffee is around €3–€4.
Other general costs to compare include cinema tickets at around €10–€15, up to €700 for a yearly gym membership and an average of €2.50–€3.50 for a beer.
The standard of living in Germany consistently ranks well in Mercer’s quality of living survey. In 2018, seven German cities featured in the top 30, three of which were in the top 10: Munich (3rd), Dusseldorf (6th), Frankfurt (7th), Berlin (13th), Hamburg (19th), Nuremberg (23rd), and Stuttgart (28th).
Munich and Frankfurt were also ranked as having the world’s second-best city infrastructure (after Singapore), with Dusseldorf in fifth place and Hamburg in ninth position.
Berlin is one of the best value capital cities to live in Europe, although an influx of expats and creatives in recent years have influenced rent prices.
The cost of living in Berlin is estimated to be:
- 34% cheaper than New York
- 23% cheaper than London
- 23% cheaper than Singapore
- 20% cheaper than Paris
- 5% more expensive than Madrid
Munich‘s cost of living is among the highest in the country, although the city offers a great deal of facilities as the capital of Germany’s southern state of Bavaria.
Munich’s cost of living is estimated as:
- 40% cheaper than New York
- 20% cheaper than London
- 20% cheaper than Singapore
- 15% cheaper than Paris
- 13% more expensive than Madrid
- 24% cheaper than New York
- 12% cheaper than London
- 14% cheaper than Singapore
- 8% cheaper than Paris
- 21% more expensive than Madrid
Heidelberg is a city revolving around the university and scientific research, while also being a favourite among visitors for its riverside location and historic town centre. Living in Heidelberg offers a mix of old and new, located around 90km south of Frankfurt.
The cost of living in Heidelberg is estimated to be:
- 47% cheaper than New York
- 27% cheaper than London
- 27% cheaper than Singapore
- 22% cheaper than Paris
- 8% more expensive than Madrid
Germany’s cost of living, however, varies greatly between major cities and rural towns:
General housing costs in Germany are fairly high, but vary considerably depending on the type of property you choose and the area in which you live; some areas offer better deals, for example, suburbs around Berlin. There are no restrictions on expats buying property in Germany.
The cost of buying property in Germany varies wildly. For example, house prices in Berlin have increased significantly in the last couple of years, with a 15% increase in 2018, putting average prices at around €3,900 per square metre.
Generally, Bavaria is significantly more expensive, with the same house in Bavaria costing up to three times as much as neighbouring southern cities. In Munich, for example, properties now cost as much as €6,300 per square metre.
In general, average property prices per square metre for major cities are around:
- Frankfurt: €2,600
- Hamburg: €4,000
- Berlin: €3,900
- Düsseldorf: €2,400
- Munich: €6,300
- Cologne: €2,850
- Dortmund: €2,000
- Stuttgart: €3,000
Most expats rent in Germany. When looking for rental apartments, it is important to understand the terminology in advertisements. If an apartment is advertised as four rooms, it will feature two bedrooms, a living room and a dining room. Kitchens, halls and bathrooms are not classified as rooms.
The most expensive German cities to rent are Munich, Frankfurt, Berlin, Dusseldorf and Hamburg. The lowest housing costs in Germany are Bremen and Leipzig. Below is an idea of average monthly rental costs for a 120 square metre apartment in Germany.
- Berlin: €1,500
- Munich: €2,250
- Frankfurt: €1,700
The easiest and quickest way to find a rental apartment in Germany is through an estate agent (Immobilienhandler). By law, handling fees for estate agents are the responsibility of the landlord so check how these fees are to be paid before signing a contract. Rent charges are paid each month. Utility costs, television, broadband and waste disposal are typically charged separately.
Germans pay almost twice as much per kilowatt of power than residents in the United States, yet pay less overall in utility bills. due to energy efficient appliances and tactics to cut down gas and electricity consumption.
Utility bills in Germany are sent quarterly. The average energy costs of living for one person in a 45 square metre studio in Berlin averages around €95–€120 a month. In general, you can calculate utility costs at a rate of €2.50 per square metre.
Numbeo estimates average monthly utility costs – including water, gas, electricity and waste disposal – for a 90 square metre apartment to be around:
- Munich or Frankfurt: €220
- Dusseldorf: €210
- Berlin: €245
- Hamburg: €240
- Cologne: €200
Like in many other parts of the world, utility bills for gas and electric in Germany are changing due to the transition to renewable energy. Although renewables may reduce the utility bills, green taxes could mean you end up paying more.
In addition, monthly internet in Germany is around €30–€40 depending on the package you opt for. Service providers also include a fixed landline charge. An additional living cost in Germany is the mandatory television and radio licence.
Public transport in Germany is of an exceptionally high standard and reasonably priced in comparison to transport systems elsewhere in Europe.
Prices range from €60–€90 a month depending on the city in Germany. On average, a one-way ticket is €2.70–€4 depending on the number of zones covered. InterCity trains sometimes have special offers. If you commute to work, you can buy a BahnCard for reduced rates. You can also use the BahnCard on buses.
Buses are slightly less expensive, but fares depend on the distance you are travelling. Like most countries, you pay bus fares on the bus rather than buying prepaid tickets, although monthly travel cards cover buses as well. The public transport system is well policed. Passengers without valid tickets face a fine of €40–€60.
Owning a car in Germany is more expensive. Generally speaking, expats living in major cities like Berlin, Munich, Hamburg and Frankfurt do not need to own a car other than for convenience. Recent fuel prices in Germany were €1.35 for unleaded and €1.22 for diesel.
Taxi tariffs start at around €3.20–€3.60, but vary widely between cities. For example, fares start at €3.90 in Berlin, €3.20 in Hamburg, €3.60 in Munich, and €3.50 in Frankfurt, Dortmund and Cologne. Fares per kilometre range between €1.50 and €2.
The alternative is to send your children to international schools in Germany. Tuition fees are substantially more expensive although vary in relation to the prestige of the institution and the grade level of schooling.
Average costs start around €16,000 and increase upwards of €20,000 a year for comprehensive schools (30 to 50% less for junior school). Bilingual schools cost between €500–€600 a month.
Germany boasts an excellent childcare system, with certain cities offering daycare subsidies (more so in former east Germany, although it becoming more common in the west).
The majority of state-owned childcare centres cost an average of some €250 to €400 per month, while private centres range between €600 and €900. Subsidised childcare costs in Germany are based on income and can be as little as €120–€140 a month for seven to nine hours per day.
You can also find German childcare centres that offer prices at a substantially lower rate for older children. For example, fees up to the age of four can average more than €200 a month, compared to less than €100 for children aged five because it is their final year before starting school. Read more about childcare in Germany.
Expats living in Germany are required to take out basic German health insurance. The cost varies depending on age, cover and the health insurance company you use. Basic insurance for students starts at around €80 and from €160–€400 for professionals.
Expats that are employed by a company can arrange to pay insurance premiums through a subsidised company insurer. Self-employed individuals should organise private health insurance.
In exchange, residents in Germany have access to subsidised or free healthcare in Germany.
Staple foods are not too expensive in Germany, although upmarket supermarkets such as Rewe and Tegut are more expensive. If you shop at Lidl and Aldi, you can save between 10 and 15%.
However, supermarkets tend to stock fewer items, so you may need to head to specialist stores where prices are higher (Asian vegetables are a good example of this). Expats should budget for around €40–€50 a week per person for basic foods.
Dining out in Germany is affordable, although there is an extremely cosmopolitan choice of restaurants that widely differ in price. A budget lunch costs between €5 and €11, while an evening meal in a standard restaurant can cost between €10 to €20 per person. If you have a couple of beers or a glass of wine, add €10 on.
A budget of €30–€40 per person can cover a decent meal in a nice restaurant. Tips are not included in the bill and are typically around 10–15%.
Germans drink their beer in various sizes, from the standard half pint to two-pint tenets. A typical price for a small beer is €2–€4, a pint is €3.50–€5.50 and a tenet is €9–€10.
Residents in Germany pay personal income tax on worldwide income. In certain circumstances, there will be other taxes to pay. You can find more about paying taxes in Germany in this guide.
Married couples are taxed on a joint income. Income tax in Germany is progressive, rising from a basic rate of 14% up to 43%. In 2019, the first €9,169 is tax-free.
In addition, there is a solidarity surcharge of 5.5% of tax to aid costs of integrating former East German states.
The social security and pension system in Germany is not part of the tax system, although deductions are generally taken directly from the salaries of employees. Contributions are made by both you and your employer.
Social security contributions are high and account for 40% of your wages. However, they cover you for health insurance, nursing care, pension and unemployment.
Read more about the social security system in Germany.