The facts on the geography, people and society of Germany.
Location: Central Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, between the Netherlands and Poland and south of Denmark.
Geographic coordinates: 51 00 N, 9 00 E
Area: 357,022 sq km
Country comparison to the world: 63
Land: 348,672 sq km
Water: 8,350 sq km
Land boundaries: 3,790 km
Border countries: Austria 784 km, Belgium 167 km, Czech Republic 815 km, Denmark 68 km, France 451 km, Luxembourg 138 km, Netherlands 577 km, Poland 456 km and Switzerland 334 km
Coastline: 2,389 km
Climate: Temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers; occasional warm mountain (Föhn) wind.
Terrain: Lowlands in the north, uplands in the centre and Bavarian Alps in south.
Lowest point: Neuendorf-Sachsenbande – 3.54 m
Highest point: Zugspitze 2,963 m
Natural resources: Coal, lignite, natural gas, iron ore, copper, nickel, uranium, potash, salt, construction materials, timber and arable land.
People and Society
Ethnic groups: German 91.5 percent, Turkish 2.4 percent and other 6.1 percent made up largely of Greek, Italian, Polish, Russian, Serbo-Croatian and Spanish.
Religions: Protestant 34 percent, Roman Catholic 34 percent, Muslim 3.7 percent and unaffiliated or other 28.3 percent.
Population: 81,305,856 (July 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 16
0-14 years: 13.3 percent (male 5,569,390/female 5,282,245)
15-64 years: 66.1 percent (male 27,227,487/female 26,617,915)
65 years and over: 20.6 percent (male 7,217,163/female 9,557,634)
Total: 44.9 years
Male: 43.7 years
Female: 46 years
Population growth rate: -0.2 percent (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 208
Birth rate: 8.33 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 217
Death rate: 11.04 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 38
Major cities – population: Berlin (capital) 3.438 million, Cologne 1.001 million, Hamburg 1.786 million, Munich 1.349 million.
Health expenditures: 8.1 percent of GDP
Country comparison to the world: 55
Doctors’ density: 3.531 doctors/1,000 population
Country comparison to the world: 28
Hospital bed density: 8.17 beds/1,000 population
Country comparison to the world: 7
Education expenditures: 4.5 percent of GDP
Country comparison to the world: 82