Home About Germany The Basics Germany facts: Geography, people and society
Last update on November 26, 2018
Written by CIA World Factbook

The facts on the geography, people and society of Germany.

Geography

Location: Central Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, between the Netherlands and Poland and south of Denmark.

Geographic coordinates: 51 00 N, 9 00 E

Area: 357,022 sq km
Country comparison to the world: 63

Land: 348,672 sq km
Water: 8,350 sq km

Land boundaries: 3,790 km
Border countries: Austria 784 km, Belgium 167 km, Czech Republic 815 km, Denmark 68 km, France 451 km, Luxembourg 138 km, Netherlands 577 km, Poland 456 km and Switzerland 334 km

Coastline: 2,389 km

Climate: Temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers; occasional warm mountain (Föhn) wind.

Terrain: Lowlands in the north, uplands in the centre and Bavarian Alps in south.

Elevation extremes:
Lowest point: Neuendorf-Sachsenbande – 3.54 m
Highest point: Zugspitze 2,963 m

Natural resources: Coal, lignite, natural gas, iron ore, copper, nickel, uranium, potash, salt, construction materials, timber and arable land.

People and Society

Nationality:
Noun: German(s)
Adjective: German

Ethnic groups: German 91.5 percent, Turkish 2.4 percent and other 6.1 percent made up largely of Greek, Italian, Polish, Russian, Serbo-Croatian and Spanish.

Language: German

Religions: Protestant 34 percent, Roman Catholic 34 percent, Muslim 3.7 percent and unaffiliated or other 28.3 percent.

Population: 81,305,856 (July 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 16

Age structure:
0-14 years: 13.3 percent (male 5,569,390/female 5,282,245)
15-64 years: 66.1 percent (male 27,227,487/female 26,617,915)
65 years and over: 20.6 percent (male 7,217,163/female 9,557,634)

Median age:
Total: 44.9 years
Male: 43.7 years
Female: 46 years

Population growth rate: -0.2 percent (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 208

Birth rate: 8.33 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 217

Death rate: 11.04 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 38

Major cities – population: Berlin (capital) 3.438 million, Cologne 1.001 million, Hamburg 1.786 million, Munich 1.349 million.

Health expenditures: 8.1 percent of GDP
Country comparison to the world: 55

Doctors’ density: 3.531 doctors/1,000 population
Country comparison to the world: 28

Hospital bed density: 8.17 beds/1,000 population
Country comparison to the world: 7

Education expenditures: 4.5 percent of GDP
Country comparison to the world: 82