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Last update on February 22, 2021

There are many notable and famous Germans who, though now deceased, played a major role in shaping our world through their contributions to science, art, and history.

Several famous Germans have made notable contributions to German and world culture or played an important role in history. They improved lives across the world, shaped Europe, and also changed the future with their inventions.

Johannes Gutenberg (1398–1468)

Originally a goldsmith and inventor, he is also the father of book printing by inventing movable type printing in Europe. His major work, the Gutenberg Bible, is acclaimed for its high aesthetic and technical quality.

Martin Luther (1483–1546)

A monk, priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer, Martin Luther’s questioning of the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church inspired the Protestant Reformation. This deeply influenced the doctrines and culture of the Lutheran and Protestant traditions, as well as the course of Western civilization.

Johann Sebastian Bach (1685–1750)

A composer and organist whose works for choir, orchestra, and solo instruments brought the Baroque period to its ultimate maturity. Without necessarily giving it new forms, he enriched the prevailing German style and also made a deep impact on the development of church music. He is one of the greatest composers of all time.

Johann Wolfgang Goethe (1749–1832)

A poet and novelist, his most enduring work – the two-part dramatic poem Faust – is one of the peaks of world literature. Goethe’s other literary works include Wilhelm Meister’s Apprenticeship, the epistolary novel The Sorrows of Young Werther, as well as the semi-autobiographical novel Elective Affinities.

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756–1791)

An influential composer of the Classical era, his output of over 600 compositions includes works widely acknowledged as pinnacles of classical music. Mozart is among the most endearingly popular European composers. Many of his works are also part of the standard concert repertoire. He is one of the greatest composers ever.

Otto von Bismarck (1815–1898)

A European statesman of the 19th century and as Prime Minister of Prussia from 1862 to 1890, he engineered the unification of Germany. From 1867, he was Chancellor of the North German Confederation. When the German Empire was declared in 1871, he served as its first Chancellor. Bismarck was subject to personal cult in Germany for a long time after his death. Due to his ruling in the brief period of Imperial German colonialism, the Bismarck Archipelago on Papua New Guinea is named after him.

Karl Friedrich Benz (1844–1929)

An engine designer and automobile engineer generally regarded as the inventor of the gasoline-powered automobile. Other German contemporaries, Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach, also worked independently on the same type of invention, but Benz patented his work first and, after that, patented all of the processes that made the internal combustion engine feasible for use in automobiles. In 1886, Benz also received a patent for his first engine, which he designed in 1878. In 1885, Benz also created the motorcar (Motorwagen) the first commercial automobile.

Paul Gottlieb Nipkow (1860–1940)

A technician and television pioneer, he invented the electric telescope for the electric reproduction of illuminating objects; in fact, these were the basic apparatuses for television broadcast. Nipkow proposed the first practical television principle based on a scanning disc that transmitted live moving images with tone graduation or greyscale in 1884. Nipkow became famous for being the creator of television. In 1935, the first public television station in the world was named after him.

Albert Schweitzer (1875–1965)

A theologian, musician, philosopher, and physician, he received the 1952 Nobel Peace Prize in 1953 for his philosophy of reverence for life expressed in many ways. Most famously, he founded and also sustained the Lambaréné Hospital in Gabon.

Konrad Adenauer (1876–1967)

A conservative statesman, his political career spanned 60 years, beginning as early as 1906. He is most noted for his role as the first Chancellor of West Germany from 1949 – 1963. Adenauer was also chairman of the Christian Democratic Union from 1950 to 1966. He was, in fact, the oldest chancellor ever to serve Germany.

Albert Einstein (1879–1955)

A famous German theoretical physicist, Einstein is widely considered to have been one of the greatest physicists of all time. He first elaborated the theory of relativity and specifically the mass-energy equivalence, E=mc2. He earned the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect.

Konrad Zuse (1910–1995)

An engineer and computer pioneer whose greatest achievement was the first functional tape-stored-program-controlled computer, the Z3, in 1941. The Z3 is the first computer in the world. Zuse also designed the first high-level programming language, the Plankalkül, published in 1948. His was a theoretical contribution since the language never came in to use within his lifetime; it did not directly influence any early-implemented languages, however.