Thinking about starting your own business in Germany? Find out everything you need to know when it comes to paying your way with our expert guide to corporate tax in Germany.
Anyone running a German business or carrying on a trade is subject to corporate tax in Germany.
The German corporate tax rate is made up of a federal business tax and a municipal business tax. As a result, the amount of corporate tax you pay can vary depending on where you are in the country. This detailed guide covers the following topics:
- The corporate tax system in Germany
- Who pays corporate tax in Germany?
- Corporate rates in Germany
- Corporate tax exemptions and corporate tax credits in Germany
- VAT in Germany
- Corporate tax year in Germany
- How to file your corporate tax return in Germany
- Other types of business tax in Germany
- Corporate tax fines in Germany
- Corporate tax advice in Germany
- Useful resources
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The corporate tax system in Germany
In Germany, companies pay corporate tax (Körperschaftsteuer) based on their net income over the course of one business year.
For individuals running their own business activities, the same general principles for determining industrial, commercial, agricultural, and professional profits apply in the same way as for corporate entities.
Companies pay tax on total income, which includes the distributed profit shares of general and limited partnerships, as well as profits earned by sole proprietors.
Who pays corporate tax in Germany?
If the management office or registered office is located in Germany, the following types of businesses are liable to pay corporate tax:
- Mutual insurance companies
- Legal entities such as societies and trusts
- Commercial enterprises run by public legal entities
Companies that generate income in Germany, but don’t have management or registered offices in the country, are only liable to pay corporate tax on their German income.
Corporate tax for sole traders and limited companies
Tradespeople will have registered with the trade office. The trade office passes on your details to the tax office, which will then issue your tax number.
Once you register, you’ll have to complete annual tax returns and pay income tax in installments in advance. Profits are taxed at the personal tax rate rather than the corporate tax rate.
Some self-employed people also need to pay contributions to the German pension fund. Self-employed workers can claim some services and items necessary for their work as tax-deductible expenses. This includes things such as stationery, office space, office equipment, work-related travel, childcare costs, healthcare, pension, and other insurance contributions.
You’ll need to save your receipts and other relevant documentation in order to prove the expenses are real.
Corporate tax for freelancers
Things work a little differently for freelancers. They do not have to register with the Handelsregister (the Commercial Register), and also don’t have to become a member of or contribute to the Chamber of Commerce (commonly referred to as an IHK in German, which is short for Industrie- und Handelskammertag).
In addition to this, freelancers don’t need to prepare annual financial statements for taxation purposes or pay a trade tax. Instead, a simple profit-and-loss assessment is sufficient.
Freelancers in Germany must register with the local tax authorities, their professional association, and an accident insurance company (if they employ other people).
The tax authorities assess your income tax in quarterly payments, which are based on your income after deducting expenses.
While freelancers are generally not liable to the German social security system, they should consider making their own arrangements for things such as:
- Private health insurance
- Health insurance that also covers the risk of illness and the loss of income should you become sick.
- Disability insurance to cover the risk of monetary loss if illness means you can’t continue working.
- Life insurance to supplement retirement income.
Corporate tax for artists and journalists
Artists and journalists in Germany must make contributions to the government-backed social security system. This covers pensions, a contribution to health insurance, and care insurance for old-age nursing care.
If you don’t make these arrangements, a law called the Social Law for Artists (Künstlersozialversicherungsgesetz) means freelance artists or journalists who are not contributing to their social insurance, such as a pension scheme, need to join the government’s Künstlersozialkasse.
The contributions depend on your income. There is also a ceiling on the total annual income that contributors are able to make, which changes each year.
Corporate tax rates in Germany
Germany’s combined corporate income tax rate is one of the highest in Europe. The national corporate tax rate is set at 15%. A solidarity surcharge of 5.5% is then added, making the effective rate 15.825%.
Municipalities with more than 80,000 inhabitants set an additional trade tax. Trade taxes vary significantly from area to area, ranging from around 8% to 20%.
You can determine how much you owe by applying the federal rate (Steuermesszahl) to your company’s taxable business income, which results in a basic tax amount.
The municipal coefficient (Hebesatz) is then applied to the basic tax amount to determine the actual amount of tax that’s owed. This means that the total German corporate tax rate varies significantly, but companies will generally pay around 23–37%, according to KPMG.
Corporate tax exemptions and credits in Germany
Corporate tax exemptions in Germany
Several types of income are exempt from corporate tax in Germany. The most important ones include:
- Company-level capital contributions upon the company’s formation or capital increase. This is regardless of whether the contribution was in return for shares, other membership rights, or just in connection with an increase in the capital reserves.
- Shareholder-level capital repayments from the company if they do not contain dividend distributions. If they exceed the book value of the shareholder’s investment, the amount that exceeds it is taxable.
- 95% of domestic and foreign dividends.
- 95% of capital gains from the sale of shares in a company.
- Investment grants for investments in the new federal states.
Corporate tax credits in Germany
Corporate taxpayers in Germany can claim a credit, which is 3.8 times the basic amount paid for the municipal business tax. The maximum amount of tax credits you can receive depends on how much business income you make compared to the total taxable income.
For example, take a taxpayer who earns 55% of their taxable income from employment and runs a business that provides the remaining 45% of taxable income. If they have an income tax liability of €50,000, the maximum business tax credit they get is €22,500, which is 45% of €50,000.
Tax credits cannot result in a refund of income tax and cannot be set against income tax of another year.
However, the municipal tax credit may result in overcompensation as it can be greater than the municipal business tax that you owe. This means the taxpayer can use the credit fully against their income tax liability for the year.
The government introduced a new research and development tax credit in 2020. This allows businesses to claim a tax credit worth 25% of the wages and salaries paid to research staff. The maximum credit increased from €500,000 to €1 million until 2026.
VAT in Germany
Companies or individuals that earn €22,000 (gross) in one financial year, or are likely to exceed €50,000 in the next financial year, must pay value-added tax (VAT) on goods and services. VAT in Germany is called Umsatzsteuer (USt), though many people still use its old name, Mehrwertsteuer (MwSt).
Businesses pay USt at a rate of 19%. However, if you provide services such as translating, journalism, supplying food, or making artworks, you can pay at 7%.
As part of the German government’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic, hospitality companies pay a reduced rate of 7% until 31 December 2022.
There are a few goods and services that are exempt from VAT in Germany. These include the following:
- Intra-EU deliveries (due to the fact that an EU customer pays VAT at their end)
- Services provided by certain professionals, such as doctors
- Financial and insurance services
- Buying and selling real estate
Corporate tax year in Germany
The German tax year is the same as the calendar year. Taxpayers can choose a different financial year once they have registered the business in the Commercial Register (Handelsregister).
Companies must pay tax on the profit in the calendar year when its’ financial year ends.
For instance, if a company’s financial year ends on 31 January 2021, it must pay tax on the profit earned between 1 February 2020 and 31 January 2021 for the 2021 tax year. That’s despite the fact that it made most of the profit in 2020.
As a result, this means the tax filing obligation is usually delayed by several months.
How to file your corporate tax return in Germany
Individuals, employers, entrepreneurs, and associations can use ELSTER (in German) to register, make tax declarations, and pay tax online.
There are several steps in the registration process. After sending the registration data, you must send a confirmation mail via the ELSTER portal and activation code by letter.
Therefore, it’s best to register well before the return is due on 31 May.
The ELSTER certificate authenticates the information you provide and serves as an electronic signature for security.
The next step is for the tax office to decide how much tax you need to pay. You’ll receive an assessment including a demand for payment or information on getting a refund for any tax you overpaid.
An overpayment can occur because you have to pay the tax a year in advance, in four installments. These are due in March, June, September, and December.
Other types of business tax in Germany
Some businesses must also pay dividend tax. Dividends for both resident and foreign corporations in Germany are generally 95% tax-exempt unless you include them as tax-deductible expenses for the payer.
Capital gains tax
In general, capital gains received by companies from selling business assets are treated as ordinary income. The gains can be offset against the cost of a replacement property.
Capital gains from the sale of investments are exempt from corporation and trade taxes, and therefore any associated losses are not deductible.
The solidarity surcharge (Solidaritätszuschlag) is an additional fee on top of corporate tax.
This surcharge applies at a flat rate of 5.5%. Payment is at the same time as the tax is charged; there’s no tax return necessary for reporting or paying the Solidaritätszuschlag.
All commercial businesses in industry, trade, crafts, and services must pay a trade tax.
There’s a 3.5% base rate throughout Germany. Each municipality then adds a multiplier, which can vary.
Partnerships have an annual tax-free trade tax allowance of €24,500. Some trade tax exceeding that can often be offset against personal income tax.
Corporate tax fines in Germany
If you file your corporate tax return late, you could face a fine of up to 10% of the tax due (up to a maximum of €25,000). If you pay late, you pay a penalty of 1% per month.
Should a tax audit show you paid too little tax, you generally won’t need to pay a fine. However, interest on the unpaid amount accrues at 0.5% per month (starting 15 months after the year the assessment is based on).
Corporate tax advice in Germany
Corporate tax in Germany can be tricky, particularly if you have complex circumstances. Using the services of a professional accountant can help.
To find an appropriate professional near you, you can contact the German Federal Chamber of Tax Consultants (Bundessteuerberaterkammer or BStBK; link in German) and the German Association of Tax Advisors (Deutscher Steuerberaterverband or DStV).