German management culture

Understanding German business culture

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Expats working in Germany may struggle in the new workplace or feel overwhelmed by a barrage of German regulations. Sylvia Schroll-Machl offers advice to ease the transition into working in Germany.

Expats working in Germany may find themselves struggling to find their feet in the new workplace. German customs such as the mysterious lunchtime greeting 'mahlzeit' can leave foreigners confused, and German companies, with their government-imposed regulations and all-powerful works councils, function by very different rules to their counterparts elsewhere.

Germans are often described by non-Germans as having the following qualities: sensible, reserved, punctual, precise, cold, target-oriented, arrogant, sure of themselves, obedient, disciplined, plan-oriented, authoritative, stiff, unfeeling, direct, bureaucratic, professional, correct, self-assured, petty, highly orderly, strong, humourless, principled, reliable, perfectionist, organised.

This list is made up of stereotypes and/or prejudices which lie in the eye of the beholder and reflect reality to varying degrees. Nevertheless, we can identify specific behaviours through which we can distinguish members of the German culture from those of other cultures.

Behind these stereotypes stand cultural standards which determine the behaviour of people within the cultural group. These firmly-anchored values, developed through the ages, are closely-associated with positive feelings for members of the culture. They need no reflection, are taken for granted and are accepted by all members of the culture as 'right'.

Cultural standards describe characteristics on an abstract and generalised level. They relate to the elements which are common to a particular nation. An individual German can, of course, significantly diverge from these standards. However, the majority of Germans adhere to them, which explains the consistent impressions foreign business partners have of Germans.

German business culture
Understanding German business culture

The most important German cultural standards are:

Focus on the task

The task is the central and dominant issue in all business interactions and also determines the style of communication. The relationship level assumes a more subordinate role in professional life.Germans usually think that operating at the task level should form the basis of all business contacts. The next cultural standard is closely related to this aspect.

Value of structures and rules

In German companies, there are countless rules, regulations, procedures and processes. German business people prefer contracts and written agreements of all types. The existence of these things and their tight and consistent application, the adherence to them and the rigid consequences, or even penalties, for not complying with them are in stark contrast to other cultures. On the one hand, this underscores a consistency and high degree of mutual obligation. On the other hand, this principle leaves little room for flexibility and individual determination.

Reliability and avoidance of uncertainty (rule-orientation, internalised focus of control)

Consistency and reliability are seen as especially important German traits. Members of the German culture have a high tendency to avoid uncertainty. They therefore develop binding rules and structures in order to foster certainty in dealings with each other.

German punctuality (time-planning)

The approaches described above have a strong impact on the relationship with regard to time. Appointments are precisely planned and it is expected that times which are set are adhered to. Punctuality is a matter of good manners.

Separation of private and public spheres

Germans exercise a strict separation between the various spheres of their life. They clearly vary their behaviour with other people depending on the sphere of their life (private or business) in which they have contact with an individual as well as the closeness of the relationship (business partner or friend). This frequently leads to Germans in business or public life being seen by members of other cultures as very remote and cold and even as overtly unfriendly.

Directness of communication

Germans communicate very directly and explicitly. They formulate important statements directly and openly and without 'window dressing'. They can appear rude and threatening without meaning to or even noticing it. In return, they do not easily recognise and respond to verbal subtleties such as indirect hints, messages 'between the lines' and many non-verbal signals. They can therefore often miss the decisive content of an interaction.

Culturally-specific behaviour can be explained on the basis of cultural standards. This can aid in understanding what would otherwise be irritating, unusual and strange events. This knowledge is therefore an important basis for constructive cooperation between members of different cultures.


Sylvia Schroll-Machl / Expatica

Sylvia Schroll-Machl is the author of Doing Business with Germans. Our Perception – Their Perception. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. For more information go to or

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3 Comments To This Article

  • Katrin posted:

    on 12th March 2014, 09:28:07 - Reply

    ???Was soll man damit anfangen...hoffentlich lesen das nicht allzu viele Leute!

    Oder mit andren Worten:
    Sorry, but that is the biggest rubbish I have ever heard of:-)

    There are extremely target driven companies in England as well for example. In times of globalism statements like this essay are a slightly little bit over dated.
    If you do not agree with the ideologies of the company your work for just change jobs!
  • Sudhar posted:

    on 21st October 2012, 00:48:13 - Reply

    Be a Roman in Rome!
  • Susan posted:

    on 10th July 2012, 22:49:56 - Reply

    Germans are direct, fine, [edited by moderator]. The Dutch are direct but manage to not make the other person feel like they have done something wrong, or do not belong. How to handle this, other than developing the same insensitivity as them? I was not socialized this way!