Discover how income taxes in Belgium work, including the 2023 income tax bands and how to file your Belgian income tax return.
If you’re living and working in Belgium, you’ll almost certainly need to pay taxes on your income. But it can be challenging to work out how much you need to pay, when you need to pay it, and how. Keep reading for advice on the following:
- Income tax in Belgium
- Earnings subject to income tax in Belgium
- How to file your tax return in Belgium
- Income tax rates in Belgium
- Income tax in Belgium for foreigners
- Tax refunds in Belgium
- Tax fines in Belgium
- Income tax advice in Belgium
- Useful resources
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Income tax in Belgium
The income tax system
Workers must pay income tax on money earned through employment in Belgium. Belgium has some of the highest income tax rates in Europe, with earnings over €46,440 taxed at 50%. The Belgian Ministry of Finance (Service Public Fédéral Finances, Federale Overheidsdienst Financiën) oversees income tax in Belgium.
Workers in Belgium have income tax deducted automatically from their salaries but still need to file an annual tax return. Self-employed people are responsible for declaring their income on their tax return.
Income tax contributions do not include social security in Belgium. Workers generally pay 13.07% of their income in social security contributions, while self-employed people pay an average of 22%.
Who pays income tax?
Your income tax eligibility in Belgium varies depending on whether you’re considered a resident or non-resident for tax purposes.
If you’ve moved to Belgium and the authorities consider your primary home and income to based in the country, they will consider you a tax resident. This means you’ll need to pay income tax in Belgium on your worldwide earnings.
If you are a non-resident, you’ll only need to pay income tax on your Belgian earnings.
Earnings subject to income tax in Belgium
Taxes on income and salary in Belgium
- Employed income: workers in Belgium pay income tax on their earnings. Income tax rates are charged in four tiers between 25% and 50% system (more on this further down).
- Self-employed income: self-employed workers, freelancers, sole traders and people with a stake in a partnership pay income tax at the same rates as workers. Find out more in our guide to self-employed taxes in Belgium.
- Business income: company owners must pay corporate tax on their business profits. Corporate tax is charged at 25% in 2023.
Taxes on employment benefits
If you are given benefits by your employer (such as health insurance or a company car), these may be subject to tax.
In most cases, you’ll pay tax based on the taxable value of the benefit – the amount that you’d normally have to spend to obtain the benefit. There are some exceptions, however.
If there are benefits that you use exclusively for work purposes (e.g., IT equipment), you may be able to reduce your taxable burden to nil or be reimbursed by your employer. More substantial benefits (such as company cars) have specific tax calculations based on their value, emissions and the degree to which they’re used for non-work activities.
Taxes on savings and investments
How much tax you’ll pay on saving and investment income depends on your residency status and whether the investment is regulated or unregulated.
For regulated savings accounts, you can make up to €980 a year in interest before paying tax. Non-regulated accounts are subject to tax from the first euro.
Taxes on rental income
Real estate income is subject to income tax (if you own the property as an individual) or corporate tax (if you own the property as a company).
How to file your tax return in Belgium
Income tax deadlines
The Belgian tax year runs from 1 January to 31 December, and tax returns must be filed the following summer. This means that in the summer of 2023, you’ll need to file your tax return for 2022. All workers in Belgium must file an annual tax return, even if they have a salaried job with one employer.
Online tax returns
You can file your tax return by post or online. Online filing can be more straightforward, as the forms will come pre-filled with information received from your employer and you’ll be informed if you’ve missed any important fields. It’s also possible to save your progress and return later.
Once you’ve completed one online tax return, you’ll no longer be sent a paper form in the post in subsequent years.
Income tax forms
If you choose to file a paper return, you’ll receive this in the post around May or June. The submission deadline is usually around the end of June. This varies from year-to-year and can be extended, but this will be stated on the tax return. Those who file online usually benefit from a slightly later deadline, as do non-residents.
If you haven’t received your tax return five weeks before the deadline, you should contact your local tax office, the address of which you can find on your previous tax bill.
Simplified tax returns
Some residents won’t need to fill out a full tax return, and will instead receive a simplified return when they log in to their online tax account.
This will include an estimated calculation of the tax due. Simplified returns are commonly provided to the likes of retirees, those on unemployment allowance, and students with limited income.
Income tax rates in Belgium
The Belgian government sets income tax rates on an annual basis. In recent years, they’ve been set based on four distinct bands: 25%, 40%, 45%, and 50%.
The tax brackets for 2022 and 2023 are as follows:
Income tax bands for the 2022 tax year
|Belgian income tax bands||Belgian tax rate|
|Up to €13,870||25%|
Income tax bands for the 2023 tax year
|Belgian income tax bands||Belgian tax rate|
|Up to €15,200||25%|
These rates apply to earnings within each band. So if you earned €30,000 in 2022, you’ll pay 25% on the amount up to €13,870 (taking into account your tax-free allowance), 40% on the amount between €13,870 and €24,480 and then 45% on the remainder.
There are a number of online calculators available that allow you to calculate your net earnings. Some options are as follows:
Personal tax allowance and deductions
All residents in Belgium have a personal tax allowance, which is updated each year and varies based on how many children you have.
The basic allowance for childless workers in 2023 (applying to income from 2022) is €9,270, so any earnings below this amount won’t be subject to income tax. You can find the rates for future years on the FinanceInfo website (in Dutch).
|Personal allowance in 2023 (applying to earnings from 2022)||EUR|
|Extra allowance per child over four years old||€6,010|
General tax credits
A range of tax credits are available in Belgium, though the rules vary depending on what you’re claiming for. You can claim tax credits on the following:
- Charity donations;
- Capital and interest payments on a mortgage loan;
- Pension and life insurance contributions;
- Childcare expenses
Dependent spouse allowance
You can allocate a part of your professional income to your spouse if your spouse’s income does not exceed 30% of your combined professional income. This measure is known as the dependent spouse allowance.
Employees, as well as company managers, assisting spouses and all self-employed individuals can include a standard business expense deduction in their annual individual tax return.
In 2023, the lump sum business expense allowance is calculated at a rate of 30% of earnings, up to a maximum deduction of €5,520.
Using the standard deduction on your tax return is only beneficial if your actual expenses are less than the lump sum or if it is too difficult or impossible for you to prove your expenses. In all other cases, you should try to prove your actual expenses.
Self-employed income tax allowances
Self-employed people can deduct their social security contributions and business expenses when filing a tax return. You can deduct expenses on an actual or lump sum basis.
Any expenses you offset on your tax bill must relate to a professional activity and be declared at their actual cost. While you can deduct most expenses at their full cost, car-related expenses (75%), restaurant bills (69%), and representation costs (50%) are only partly-deductible.
If you want to claim your expenses on an actual cost basis, you’ll need to keep track of all of your expenses in case you’re required to provide evidence when you file your return.
Self-employed workers are allowed to submit a lump-sum deduction of up to €5,520, as explained above. Those who submit their expenses as a lump sum won’t need to provide evidence such as expense receipts.
Income tax in Belgium for foreigners
How Belgian residency affects your tax status
The Belgian tax system distinguishes between resident and non-resident taxpayers when it comes to determining how much income tax you’ll need to pay. You’ll usually be classified as a tax resident if your family home and main source of income are both in Belgium.
Workers classified as Belgian residents for tax purposes are taxed on worldwide income. This means that they must pay income tax on earnings anywhere in the world. Non-residents, meanwhile, are only taxed on income earned in Belgium.
Foreign workers in Belgium are subject to the same income tax rules and rates as Belgian nationals, though some can benefit from a special expat tax scheme.
Expat tax incentives
In 2022, a new expatriate tax regime was introduced in Belgium for directors, executives, and specialists earning over €75,000 working for multinationals. It also applies to researchers who meet criteria listed below. This regime aims to simplify the system and offer employers and qualifying employees more legal clarity. The regime can apply for five years and then be extended to up to eight years.
Certain tax benefits that were available prior to 2022 still apply. For example, employers can reimburse costs tax-free for ongoing costs such as cost of living and housing allowances. Reimbursements for moving and relocation costs, furnishings (up to one month of rent), and school fees for children aged five and above are also exempt.
One of the biggest benefits of the special tax status is that you can effectively gain non-resident status. Because of this, you only pay income tax on money you’ve earned in Belgium. You do, however, need to provide a certificate of tax residency in another country.
For those who travel for work, this can make a significant difference. This is because you won’t need to declare any income you earn on days spent outside of Belgium for income tax purposes.
Real estate income
Real estate income (for example from letting out a house) will only be subject to taxation if the income is derived from property in Belgium.
Foreign investment income
Executives are not usually taxed on foreign investment income unless it comes from a Belgian source. However, dividends and interest in Belgium are generally subject to a withholding tax rate of 30%.
Who can apply for special tax status?
To obtain the special status, you must be working in Belgium temporarily and your main residence must remain in your home country. For 60 months before working in Belgium, you must not have been taxed in Belgium, and may not have been living within 150km of the Belgian border.
The minimum salary to qualify for the new regime is €75,000, unless you qualify as a researcher. In this case, you will need a master’s degree in a specific, science-related subject, or have at least 10 years’ experience in one of these areas. At least 80% of their working time should be related to research and development.
How to apply for special tax status
New workers need to file a joint application with their employer within three months of starting their new position. The authorities will inform of their decision within the three months after that. If you then move to another employer, you will still be entitled to the same tax regime, providing you and your new employer still meet the same criteria.
If you’re planning on working in Belgium, it makes sense to contact a tax adviser to verify whether you may qualify for special status.
Tax as a non-resident
If you earn money in Belgium but are classified as a non-resident, you’ll only pay Belgian income tax on earnings from Belgian employers or if you spend more than 183 days a year in Belgium. Self-employed income only qualifies for tax if the source of that income is a Belgian employer.
Non-residents with properties in Belgium and those who receive 75% or more of their total worldwide income in Belgium can qualify for the same deductions and tax allowances as Belgian residents.
Tax refunds in Belgium
Belgian workers who believe they’ve overpaid can apply for a refund up to three years after paying the tax year in question. The time it takes to investigate and process a refund varies on a case-by-case basis, but it can take six months to a year.
Tax fines in Belgium
Workers who fail to submit their tax return on time risk fines ranging from €50 to €1,250 and a tax surcharge of between 10% and 200%.
The penalties vary depending on how late the return is and the degree to which the worker is deemed to be avoiding paying tax. The highest penalties are handed out to persistent offenders.
Income tax advice in Belgium
If you have a complicated tax situation or need help getting to grips with which allowances and exemptions you can claim, it can make sense to take advice from a professional.
You can find an accountant (expert-comptable or compte fiscal in French, accountant or belastingconsulent in Dutch) through our listings or on website of the Instituut van de Accountants en de Belastingconsulenten (French or Dutch only).