Insurance in Belgium

Discover the key types of mandatory and optional insurance in Belgium that you will need as an expat, including car, health, and life insurance.

Insurance in Belgium

By Expatica

Updated 7-2-2024

Certain types of insurance in Belgium become compulsory once you become an official Belgian resident. This guide explains which types of cover are necessary and offers advice on how to find insurance companies when moving there.

This article covers the following:

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Overview of insurance in Belgium

There are around a dozen types of insurance available to residents of Belgium, although not all are compulsory. Only a handful of providers dominate the insurance market; some of these provide everything from individual car insurance to commercial coverage. That said, there are many policies available in Belgium, so consumers could save money by shopping around.

Citizens are particularly well-covered when it comes to health insurance in Belgium, with data from the European Commission showing that state insurance covers 99% of the population. The insurance market in Belgium is regulated by the Financial Services and Markets Authority, and insurers are often represented by their industry body, Assuralia.

Which Belgian insurance is legally required?

Of all the different types of insurance in Belgium, only a few are required by law. These are as follows:

Health insurance

After moving to Belgium, you will need to join an insurance fund to benefit from the country’s state health insurance (mutuelle), which forms an integral part of the social security system. Workers in Belgium pay around 13% of their salaries in social security in Belgium.

The system works like this: if you fall ill, the health insurance fund reimburses a proportion of your medical costs – for example, 75% of your bills for visiting a doctor. Some expats elect to take additional private health insurance to cover the remaining costs and additional types of treatment such as dental care. There is a range of health insurance providers in Belgium to choose from, including the following:

You can find out more in our comprehensive guide to health insurance in Belgium.

Car insurance

In Belgium, the vehicle rather than the driver is insured; therefore anyone can drive your car once you have taken out a policy. By law, driving in Belgium requires third-party car insurance (assurance auto), which covers any damage you cause to another driver or their vehicle.

car insurance

Some drivers choose to opt for additional fire cover or fully comprehensive coverage. This includes damage from any accidents, thefts, or vandalism. Belgian insurance companies generally offer no-claims bonuses, and the cost of insurance will vary based on your circumstances and claim history.

When you take out a policy, your insurance company will issue you with a Green Card and an accident report form. You must keep both of these in your car at all times. Car insurance providers in Belgium include:

You can also take out roadside assistance insurance with many insurance companies, such as Allianz Assistance. With plenty of choices when taking out a car insurance policy in Belgium, you might want to use a comparison service. Comparison platforms can help you find the best deal for your vehicle. Find out more in our guide to car insurance in Belgium.

Unemployment insurance

Unemployment insurance is mandatory in Belgium, with employees and employers making contributions through social security. The money goes into an unemployment fund, from which workers who have lost their job can claim up to 60% (55% for married people) of their salary while they find jobs in Belgium.

Belgium has relatively low levels of unemployment, with data from Statbel showing that only 5.7% of people were unemployed in the first quarter of 2019, the lowest level since 1983.

Optional forms of insurance in Belgium

Although the following types of insurance are non-compulsory if you are an expat living in Belgium, some of them are just as essential.

Home insurance

Homeowners and tenants in Belgium typically take out home insurance policies (assurance habitation) to protect their property and belongings. While these aren’t required by law, you are likely to find that your Belgian mortgage company or landlord insists on you having some kind of cover.

As a homeowner, you are likely to need both buildings and contents insurance. The former can be particularly useful if something major goes wrong with your property, as external repairs can be very expensive. The latter, meanwhile, protects you against any loss through burglaries. 

Tenants renting a property in Belgium may only require contents insurance; to cover their belongings and those of their landlord if living in a furnished property. In rented properties, the landlord is responsible for insuring the building. Home insurance policies of all shapes and sizes are available from insurers such as:

With all these insurers, you might want to consider checking your options on a comparison platform. For more information on these platforms and more, read our complete guide to home insurance in Belgium.

Life insurance

Life insurance policies (assurance-vie) offer a financial settlement for your loved ones should you pass away. You can generally take out a package in your own name or a joint policy alongside your partner. Premiums vary but are likely to be more expensive if you have an existing illness.

Insurance companies will usually allow you to select the amount of insurance you want (in thousands of Euros, known as the sum insured), and will calculate your premium based on this and your medical history.

Travel insurance

Taking out travel insurance (assurance voyage) as a Belgian resident is fairly straightforward, with a host of insurers offering general and specialist packages.

travel insurance

The policies on offer in Belgium usually cover accidents, medical expenses, luggage insurance, and third-party liability. Some insurers will allow you to increase your level of coverage to include trip cancellations or delays. If you are going on a higher-risk holiday – for example, one where you will take part in winter sports such as skiing – you will need to take out a specialist policy or upgrade your standard one at an extra cost.

Family and personal liability insurance

According to data from KBC Bank, nearly 90% of Belgians have family insurance, even though it isn’t compulsory to take out a policy. Family insurance policies usually cover personal third-party liability. Claims in this area can vary considerably, but common claims include instances such as fallen trees or water leaks in your home causing damage to a neighbor’s property.

Premiums are relatively low-cost, so this type of insurance can be a good idea to protect you against any accidents or errors caused by your negligence. Some companies allow you to increase your policy to cover any costs caused by your dog – for example if it bites somebody or it needs taking care of if you fall ill.

Pet insurance

Pet insurance schemes in Belgium are available to cover the costs of any medical bills, tests, or surgery that your pet requires. It is possible to obtain pet insurance for as little as €135 a year, but these costs can increase significantly depending on your type of pet, the pet’s medical history, and the level of coverage you require.

Self-employed insurance

If you are self-employed in Belgium, you are entitled to basic social protection, but you must join a social insurance fund to obtain this. The overall sum you will need to contribute depends on your income.

Freelancer meeting with a client

The standard coverage includes the likes of health insurance, child benefit, and state pension. As with employees, freelancers in Belgium can take out extra insurance policies to cover other areas. You can find out more about this on the website of the National Institute for the Social Security of the Self-employed.

Legal insurance is an optional type of coverage that will help you pay the costs of any legal action, such as solicitors fees, should you be involved in a dispute. Policies are usually offered with a maximum pay-out sum and exclusions apply depending on how expensive and wide-ranging the policy is.

Commercial insurance in Belgium

General liability insurance

Companies in Belgium can take out general liability insurance to cover themselves against accidents or damage to third parties. Some bigger insurance companies offer liability insurance packages for specific industries (e.g., the food industry). This cover comes with some exceptions such as for gross negligence.

Property insurance

Property insurance for Belgian companies comes in many shapes and sizes. As well as insuring the buildings the company owns, the policy can also cover electronic items such as machinery or computers. How much these policies cost varies significantly depending on the industry, size of company, and the specific risks involved.

Worker’s compensation

As an employer in Belgium, you need to ensure that you have accident insurance for your staff. You are required to do this by law, otherwise, you risk a fine or even imprisonment. Accident insurance reassures your employees that they will be suitably compensated for medical treatment and loss of earnings; should they get injured or become unwell in the workplace. This insurance is widely available; some insurance companies even offer policies that protect workers when they are working remotely or from home.

Belgian insurance companies

The number of insurance companies in Belgium has decreased in the past five to 10 years. There are now around 80 insurance companies operating in the market.

Tools for comparing insurance in Belgium

There is a range of insurance brokers in Belgium, who can advise you finding the right policy for your needs. It is also possible to use calculators on the website of individual insurers to obtain basic quotes.

If you would rather compare insurance yourself, you can use our health insurance quotes tool.