Find out everything you need to know about income taxes in Switzerland for expats, including whether you’ll need to pay, how to file and how income tax rates work.
To get you started, this article covers the following topics:
- Income tax in Switzerland
- Earnings subject to income tax in Switzerland
- How to file your tax return in Switzerland
- Income tax rates in Switzerland
- Income tax in Switzerland for foreigners
- Tax refunds in Switzerland
- Tax fines in Switzerland
- Income tax advice in Switzerland
- Useful resources
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Income tax in Switzerland
The income tax system in Switzerland
The Swiss income tax system can be difficult to get your head around, as what you pay depends on where you live in the country.
The tax system follows a federalist structure, where the government levies a direct tax on income. The individual cantons and 2,136 municipalities levy a further tax on income and capital.
Swiss tax laws are based on the principle that a family’s income and wealth represent an economic unit. Only one tax return is necessary for each household, and the income and wealth of both spouses are combined and filed together.
If any children under the age of 18 are earning an income, they must declare it in their parents’ tax return.
Who pays income tax in Switzerland?
Non-residents with specific economic links with Switzerland have a limited tax liability.
In these cases, taxes are not levied on an international basis, but only on specific items of income that have a source in Switzerland. This includes things like Swiss property and permanent establishments.
Who is exempt from income tax in Switzerland?
New arrivals in Switzerland who have been living in the country for less than 30 days (PDF) combined with gainful activity are exempt from tax. The same applies for people living in the country for less than 90 days without gainful activity.
Individuals with a taxable income that is below CHF 17,800 (PDF), as well as couples with a taxable income below CHF 30,800 are also exempt from tax.
Old-age pensions, occupational pensions, and invalidity insurance benefits must be declared as income, and in most cases, they are fully liable to tax. But any supplementary pension benefits are non-taxable.
Earnings subject to income tax in Switzerland
Taxes on income and salary in Switzerland
There are several types of income that you may have to pay income tax on in Switzerland. These include:
- Income from employment: money earned via a salaried job or self-employed work
- Compensatory income: includes annuities and pensions
- Secondary income: this covers things like seniority allowances and tips
- Other income: including prizes on lotteries and pools over CHF 1,000
- Various sources of income: This includes income from bank accounts, securities, and real estate property
Taxes on employment benefits
Such costs can include things like prescription glasses, treatment by licensed homeopaths, dental care, and health insurance deductibles.
Most cantons and the federal government can also deduct portions of healthcare costs, although this amount will vary depending on the healthcare company.
Taxes on savings and investments
Dividends from shares and ETFs are not tax-deductible. However, gains achieved through buying and selling shares are tax-deductible, as long as you’re not a professional securities dealer. You can offset any debt you have against your savings.
Taxes on property
Depending on which canton you’re in, there are several types of tax you could have to pay if you own a property.
Property tax, also known as land or real estate tax, is a cantonal tax on land and buildings. This is payable by the registered owners or users of the property in the land register.
Property tax is calculated on the full taxable value of the property – that is, it doesn’t take any related debts or mortgages into account. Property is taxed at its location, regardless of where the owner lives. The amount taxed is between 0.2 to 0.3% of the property’s estimated value.
Then there’s wealth tax, which states that anyone who owns an apartment or house must declare it as an asset in their tax return.
Wealth tax is also based on the property’s taxable value, but proven debts can be set against it to reduce the taxable value.
Finally, property owners must also pay income tax on a property’s rental value. This value is 60 to 70% of the property’s value if it were leased on the open market.
You can deduct mortgage interest payments and upkeep costs from your taxable income.
How to file your tax return in Switzerland
People who need to file a tax return in Switzerland include:
- Swiss citizens
- Foreigners with Swiss permanent residence (Permit C)
- Foreigners married to a Swiss citizen
- Employees of foreign employers
- Self-employed workers
Some cantons have additional criteria in their tax laws that require an ordinary tax assessment of foreign residents in Switzerland (for example, if the resident owns real estate).
Income tax deadlines in Switzerland
The tax year in Switzerland corresponds with the calendar year. In most cantons, you need to file your tax return three months later, on 31 March.
The majority of cantons allow one free extension, and you may be able to pay for a further extension if necessary.
Income tax forms in Switzerland
Cantonal tax administrations deal with tax returns. The Swiss government’s website provides links for each canton. Simply enter the one you live in to access a website where you can complete your tax return.
Married couples must complete a joint tax return, which both spouses must sign.
Before you start filling out the relevant forms, make sure you have all of the necessary documents to hand. These include the following:
- Salary statements
- Bank statements
- Private Swiss pension statements (third pillar)
- Statements of special payments into an occupational pension fund (second pillar)
- Medical expenses
- Professional expenses
- Donation receipts
If you’re a homeowner, you’ll also need documents showing property tax, mortgage interest, maintenance and renovation bills, running, and administrative costs.
Income tax rates in Switzerland
Your tax bill will vary depending on which canton and municipality you live in. In general, tax scales are progressive; thus, the more you earn, the more tax you pay.
There is a reduced tax scale for married couples that live together and single-parent families.
For example, while a single taxpayer will have to pay 11.5% direct federal tax once they earn more than CHF 769,700, married taxpayers and single taxpayers with children won’t pay that level of tax until they earn more than CHF 912,600.
The Swiss government provides federal and cantonal online tax calculators, so you can work out how much you’ll need to pay.
Personal tax allowances and deductions in Switzerland
The tax allowances you receive depend on your personal circumstances – whether you’re married, how many children you have, and whether you have any other special needs to take into account.
Eligible deductions can vary between cantons, but in general, you can make deductions for:
- Work-related expenses: such as travel costs and stationery
- General deductions: state and work pensions contributions, invalidity insurance, medical insurance, life insurance, childcare, charitable donations, interest paid on private debt
- Social deductions: for instance, if you’re responsible for someone in need of care
Self-employed income tax allowances in Switzerland
Self-employed workers have to submit a tax return to pay tax on their business income and personal wealth.
Private companies and sole proprietors must declare their results as income.
Income tax in Switzerland for foreigners
Expats settling in Switzerland are taxed on worldwide income, which takes in income from foreign pensions, property and offshore employment.
If the authorities do not consider you a Swiss resident, you only pay tax on your Swiss income.
New rules came into force for expat workers in Switzerland, as part of the country’s move to reduce the unequal treatment of foreign workers taxed at source and Swiss or foreign nationals with permanent residence.
Under the old rules, foreign residents earning more than CHF 120,000 a year (or CHF 500,000 for couples in Geneva) were required to file a tax return.
Now, anyone with a lower income will now be entitled to file a tax return voluntarily. This allows them the right to claim the same expenses and deductions as those who file normally. You can claim these by submitting an application to the relevant cantonal tax administration by March 31 2023, to cover the tax year 2022.
The finer details of the reforms are very complicated, so it makes sense to seek professional tax advice to find out how they’ll affect you.
Tax refunds in Switzerland
If you have tax deducted from your salary and aren’t required to file a tax return, you may be able to submit a claim for the correction of withholding tax. This may lead to a partial tax refund.
Most cantons provide a special form to detail your claim, but some require a full tax return.
You can apply for a correction claim for:
- Debt interest on consumer loans and credit cards
- Cost of international weekly residence
- Education and retraining costs
- Health and accident costs
- Disability costs
- Support payments
- Alimony payments
- Childcare costs
- Pension fund contributions (second pillar), and own pension contributions (third pillar)
Correction claims must be submitted before 31 March of the following year – most cantons will not extend this deadline.
Extra tax refunds for expats
Expats can get some additional tax deductions, according to the Expatriate Ordinance by the Federal Department of Finances.
However, fairly few people are eligible. You must either be a member of senior staff on secondment, or a specialist with particular professional qualifications from a foreign employer.
Specialists or executives with a time-limited local contract only qualify as expats in this instance if their employment is a local transfer within the group, and the foreign employer must guarantee a re-employment after their stay in Switzerland.
Deductions you can get include costs for housing, moving, traveling, and school fees.
This special treatment ends if the temporary assignment changes to a timely unlimited contract, or after five years of staying in Switzerland – whichever is soonest.
Some cantons may grant a lump sum expat deduction, known as the OEXPA deduction, which can be equivalent to around CHF 1,500 per month.
Tax fines in Switzerland
Getting your Swiss tax return wrong can be an expensive mistake. Failing to file your tax return on time may mean being subject to default taxation.
The authorities calculate your tax bill based on a reasonable estimate of what they think you’ll owe. However, the tax base is likely to be substantially higher than what you’d pay if you submitted your return on time.
It’s possible to appeal, but you must do so within 20 to 30 days of the issue of the final assessment, depending on the canton.
Be careful, as there are also penalties for non-filing. If you don’t think you can file your tax return on time, make sure to request an extension from your canton.
Income tax advice in Switzerland
Considering how complicated the Swiss income tax system can be, and the importance of self-employed expats getting their tax return right, it’s advisable to seek advice from an accountant.
Not only can a professional save you time and stress, but they can also make sure you’re taking full advantage of all available tax allowances, and can save you a hefty fine if you get it wrong.
If you’re looking for an accountant in Switzerland, the International Federation of Accountants can be a good place to start.