If you’re pregnant and preparing to give birth in the UK, here’s a guide to having a baby in the UK, including prenatal care, delivery and maternity and paternity pay in the UK.
Giving birth in a foreign country may seem scary when you’re unfamiliar with the way the country works and how the healthcare system works for you – or not. Expatica outlines the care offered to women who are having a baby in the UK across the three stages of giving birth — prenatal, delivery and aftercar. This guide also contains information about how to register your baby in the UK, gaining British citizenship, and employment regulations concerning maternity and paternity leave and pay.
The NHS, the UK’s publicly funded national healthcare system, is the standard bearer for women having a baby in the UK but a home birth is also possible, as is choosing a private clinic. This guide explains what to expect when giving birth in the UK, so you can be prepared at every stage of your pregnancy in the UK.
The following areas are covered in this article:
- Having a baby in the UK: an overview
- Finding a gynecologist
- Pregnancy testing
- Am I entitled to free NHS maternity care in the UK?
- Private maternity insurance in the UK
- Prenatal care
- Having a baby in the UK: the delivery
- Post-natal care
- Registering your baby in the UK
- Maternity care for tourists and visitors
- Is your child a British citizen?
- UK maternity and paternity leave and pay
- Child benefits in the UK
- Childcare in the UK
- Useful websites for pregnancy in the UK
Between 750,000 and 800,000 babies are born in the UK each year, although birth rates have fluctuated dramatically over the course of the past decade. There were 774,835 live births in the UK in 2016, the lowest rate since 748,563 live births in 2006 and down from a peak of 812,970 births in 2012, according to the Office for National Statistics. And as with other parts of the developed world, women are giving birth in the UK later than ever: as of 2019, the average woman living in Britain is likely to have had just one child by the age of 30, as compared to 1.8 on average for her own mother.
The UK ranks 24th in the world for quality of maternity care according to the charity Save The Children, which evaluated the safety of mothers while giving birth, how much time they have to recover, and the well-being of children after they’re born.
Nevertheless, mothers having a baby in the UK can nevertheless expect to be well supported by the NHS’ maternity services, from well before birth to about six to eight weeks after. More than 80% of women surveyed by the Care Quality Commission said they were always spoken to in a way they could understand, whether by midwives, doctors or other staff.
Most expat women in the UK give birth supported by free NHS care. Mothers-to-be can choose where they want to give birth if the pregnancy is relatively low-risk. Maternity options include specialist clinics, hospitals, community units or your own home, and you can decide whether you want a midwife or a doctor in attendance.
Approximately 5% of women opt for private maternity care in the UK. Their main reason for doing so was to get more personalized medical care, closely followed by a desire for additional comfort. Several private health insurance providers in the UK offer maternity policies for expats.
About one in four women living in Britain give birth by cesarean section. It’s possible to choose a planned cesarean in the UK; should your doctor be unwilling to perform the operation, they should refer you to a doctor who will.
Expats living in the UK can access a range of maternity services through the NHS, including consulting with GPs, obstetrics and gynecology professionals as well as cervical screenings, emergency surgery and so on. Find a doctor in your local area on the NHS website or ask your GP to recommend a hospital that provides maternity services in your area.
Once you have decided which specialist and hospital you want to attend, you can either book an appointment through your GP while you are at the surgery, or online through the NHS e-Referral Service, using the appointment request letter from your GP. You can also phone the NHS e-Referral Service line on 0345 608 8888 (open Monday to Friday, 8am to 8pm, and weekends and bank holidays, 8am to 4pm).
Alternatively, for medical advice on specific maternity or women’s health issues, you can attend a well woman clinic which many general practitioners provide. Here you may be seen by a female doctor or practice nurse, who can help with issues such as emergency contraception or other questions you may have about having a baby in the UK.
Read Expatica’s guide to women’s healthcare in the UK for more information on general health issues.
Most foreign nationals living and working in the United Kingdom have access to free UK healthcare through the publicly funded National Health Service (NHS). The system provides maternity care — including antenatal, birth and post-natal care — free of charge to women who fall within the following categories:
- ‘Ordinarily resident’ in the UK – requires a person to live within the UK lawfully, voluntarily and with the purpose of settling. The NHS decides in a case-by-case basis whether the expectant parent meets the criteria.
- EEA nationals insured by another European state.
- Those exempt from charges – including refugees, asylum seekers, legal residents for at least 12 months, workers employed by a UK organization and self-employed persons.
If you don’t fall within these categories, you might be asked to pay for your care while having a baby in the UK but you legally can’t be refused maternity care within the country if you are unable to pay in advance. The NHS, however, may pursue the debt after if charges apply. NHS care, however, is typically free if you’re working and paying national insurance contributions in the UK, or if your husband is working in the UK.
Alternative options to NHS hospitals are available, including home births or having a baby in a private UK hospital, which can be an expensive option but you will typically have access to better facilities. You can explore private healthcare options from a number of different private UK health insurance companies, otherwise you will have to bear the costs yourself.
If you want to go private or aren’t entitled to receive free NHS treatment in the UK, you will need private health insurance to cover the costs when having a baby in the UK. There are a number of large expat-friendly health insurance companies which provide maternity coverage in the UK. These include:
To confirm if you are pregnant in the UK, you can find home pregnancy kits in all chemists and most supermarkets. They can give a quick result and you can do the test in private. You can carry out most pregnancy tests from the first day of a missed period. If you don’t know when your next period is due, do the test at least 21 days after you last had unprotected sex. Some very sensitive pregnancy tests can be used even before you miss a period, from as early as 8 days after conception.
If the test shows positive, make an appointment to see your GP or midwife who will confirm the pregnancy. You may be able to get a free pregnancy test from your GP. Read our guide on how to register with a general practitioner (GP) in the UK.
Alternatively, consult our list of places that provide free pregnancy tests:
- community contraceptive clinics – find sexual health services near you
- sexual health clinics
- some young people’s services – call the national sexual health helpline on 0300 123 7123 for details
- Brook centres– for under-25s
You may also be able to get a pregnancy test free of charge from your GP.
Once your pregnancy is confirmed, you should immediately make an appointment with your doctor or midwife to organise prenatal care and start getting the appropriate healthcare for you and your baby. You will also have two ultrasound scans around week 12 and 20 to assess your progress in whichever hospital, midwifery unit or birthing center you have chosen. Several antenatal checks and tests are also undertaken, such as screening for Down syndrome. In total, you may have up to 10 appointments during the nine months of pregnancy.
Having a baby in the UK or anywhere else requires a fair amount of preparation. Various classes, most often organized by the National Child Birth Trust, are held in local communities to help expectant parents prepare for what lies ahead. They may include learning how to handle a newborn baby or preparing for the birth itself. You can use the NHS website to find UK maternity services near you or visit Which? for more help.
Your doctor or midwife will make sure you get a clear picture of your pregnancy in the UK, nutrition and available classes, so feel free to ask all the questions you have. Your details will be entered in your record and will be updated by the midwife at each additional appointment. It is important to keep this record safe as it will be needed on the day of your delivery.
Vaccinations during pregnancy
The NHS recommends that expectant mothers have the flu and whooping cough vaccines administered during pregnancy. The authority lists a range of vaccines that are available to pregnant women, including the tetanus vaccine, or you can ask your GP or midwife for more information.
If the vaccine involves the use of a “live” version of the virus, such as the MMR vaccine, it will normally be given after your baby is born because these vaccines could cause your unborn baby to become infected. The NHS says there is no evidence that any live vaccine causes birth defects.
Find out more about vaccinations in the UK in Expatica’s guide.
When signs of labor begin, you should head to your chosen hospital, birthing center or community unit, or advise the midwife if you have decided to have a home birth, all of which are available in the UK.
Upon arrival at the maternity ward, check in with the admissions desk and show your birthing plan. You will then be set up in a delivery room, checked to determine what stage you are at and cared for by the medical staff. Your partner, or birthing partner, is permitted to be alongside while you are giving birth in the UK.
Delivery rooms in most maternity wards are much homier these days and you’ll often find several chairs and beanbags for you to move around during your labor, and sometimes even a bath or shower to make you feel more comfortable. Some maternity wards have birthing pools available for those who don’t show any labor complications, but you typically need to request this option and book well in advance.
There is a wide variety of pain relief options for giving birth in the UK, some of which are commonly offered in other European countries. They include hydrotherapy, intramuscular painkiller injections, gas and air (Entonox), Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) and epidural anesthesia. Some hospitals also allow alternative pain relief methods but you would have to enquire beforehand and organise them yourself.
While a small selection of mothers may be released as early as six hours after giving birth in the UK, it is more common to spend a night or two in the postnatal ward. Mothers who have chosen private insurance are usually able to have a room of their own, with their husband or companion of choice in attendance. Once your midwife or doctor is happy that both you and your newborn baby are well enough to go home, you will be discharged.
If it’s your first baby, it can be a bit overwhelming. The midwives are there to help and make sure you have all the information you need to peacefully go home with your newborn.
If you have chosen to have your baby in a UK hospital, you and your baby will remain in the maternity ward until the medical staff gives the all clear to return home, which can be as early as six hours after the birth if there are no complications. It may be that a newborn child is kept in longer than the mother, particularly where premature births are concerned.
Before leaving the ward, make sure to enquire about any details about post-natal care in the UK if anything is unclear. Also, bear in mind that British law requires you to have an appropriate child seat fitted for your baby if you’re traveling home by car.
Following the release of both mother and baby, a midwife will visit your home around every second day during the first 10 days. The midwife will check your recovery from labor and that your baby is feeding and gaining weight; the period may be extended for up to four weeks if the midwife isn’t happy you’re both settled.
A health visitor, who is a qualified nurse with extra training, will be assigned to you around 10 days after your baby is born. They will pay regular visits during the early years of your baby’s childhood. They will present a health check book, which parents can use to chart the progress of their child and keep track of the vaccinations and tests undertaken.
The mother, meanwhile, is expected to undergo a postnatal check-up with her doctor six to eight weeks after the birth. Visit the NHS website for an extensive list of post-natal services and support available to parents in the UK, such as talking therapy.
Parents have up to 42 days to register the birth of their child in the UK, except in Scotland where the limit is 21 days. You may be able to register the birth at the hospital before the mother leaves – the hospital will advise if this is available – but it is more commonly done at the local register office for the area where your baby was born in the UK.
If you are unable to register at the designated office, you can go to any register counter and the registrar will send your details to the appropriate district office. Here is a guide to who can register a baby’s birth in the UK.
To register, you may be asked to supply:
- your baby’s full name and gender;
- your baby’s place, date and time of birth;
- your own details including full name, address, place and date of birth and occupation;
- mother’s maiden surname; and
- date of parents’ marriage or civil partnership.
You should also take the following documents with you to the register office:
- Identification – ie. passport, birth certificate, deed poll, driving licence, proof of address, Council Tax bill or marriage/civil partnership certificate.
- Your child’s personal child health record or ‘red book’.
- Proof of paternity from your partner if you’re going on your own.
After registration, you will receive the short birth certificate that contains only the baby’s details for free. Copies of the short birth certificate, as well as longer versions carrying parental information, can be bought any time from the register office. If you registered at an office in the area where the birth took place, you will immediately be given the short birth certificate. Otherwise, you will receive it in a few days.
As having a child usually affects your taxes, benefits and local council privileges, most districts in the UK offer a ‘Tell Us Once’ service that allows you to report the birth to several government bodies in one go. The registrar will inform you whether this is available in your area and if not, you will need to take further steps to claim Child Tax Credit and contact JobCentre Plus regarding your benefits.
Expats who gave birth or are living in Scotland and Northern Ireland should check the National Records of Scotland or NIDirect websites respectively as the birth registration process varies in these regions.
From the moment you register a birth in the UK, you will be permitted to claim child benefit in most cases. Generally, expats who have the legal right to reside in the UK and call it their main home are granted child benefit in the UK – but there are certain exceptions.
For the first child, you will receive GBP 20.70 per week and for any further children GBP 13.70 per week (as of 2016) in child benefits, all of which is paid into your bank account by direct debit every four weeks. If one of the parents earns more than GBP 50,000 a year, the amount of child benefit received may be affected or you may incur a tax charge. You can also choose not to get the payments but are advised to fill in the claim form.
Being born in the UK doesn’t automatically make a baby a British citizen. Nevertheless, tourists or non-resident women may choose to give birth in the UK for a number of reasons.
Tourists and visitors on holiday in the UK are required to have medical insurance covering any health eventuality. If you’re pregnant and think there’s a chance you may need to deliver while on holiday, check with your insurer to see if you’re covered. European citizens who are having a baby in the UK while on holiday can benefit from the reciprocal privileges provided by the European Health Insurance Card (EHIC).
If you are not ordinarily resident in the UK, do not have EEA nationality or have not paid the health surcharge, you do not qualify for free NHS maternity care and may be asked to pay. However, you cannot be refused care if you cannot pay at the time you receive care. In such cases, you should ask to speak to the Overseas Visitors Manager at the hospital to explain your circumstances and discuss future payment options. Maternity care in the UK includes all antenatal, birth and post-natal care. It is classed as ‘immediately necessary treatment’ and must not be denied for any reason.
As with those who are covered by the NHS, foreigners can also choose where to have a baby in the UK. Whether you choose to deliver at home, in a birth center or in hospital, the NHS charges the same fees. Maternity Action UK, a charity that aims to improve the health and well-being of pregnant women in Britain, offers the following indication of costs:
- Antenatal care GBP 1590 to GBP 4233,
- Birth GBP 2244 to GBP3282 (plus additional payments if you need a long stay in hospital),
- Postnatal care GBP 355.50 to GBP 1207.50
For information about charges for visitors from overseas, see the NHS Choices website or the Birthrights Fact Sheet on Foreign Nationals and Maternity Care.
Babies born in the UK to at least one parent who is a British citizen or has UK permanent residency (also known as Indefinite Leave to Remain) at the time of birth are automatically granted British citizenship. Children of EEA/Swiss parents who have resided in the UK for at least five years while exercising treaty rights are also extended the same status.
To complete the registration, you must send the following documents to UK Visas and Immigration (UKVI):
- The completed MN1 application form
- Full birth certificate with parents’ names
- Parents’ passports
- Biometric information (fingerprints and a photo)
- Payment slip of GBP 936
- Proof that one parent is either British/has permanent residency or evidence that one parent is an EEA/Swiss citizen with permanent residency.
If you give birth in the UK, you entitled to take a total of 52 weeks of UK maternity leave if you are considered an ‘employee’ and meet the conditions (see below), however, only 39 weeks are covered by maternity pay. You are not obliged to take the full year off but it is compulsory to take a two-week leave after your baby is born, or four weeks if you work in a factory. You can calculate how much maternity or paternity pay you will receive.
The first 26 weeks are considered ‘normal’ maternity leave; mothers are then entitled to extend their maternity leave for an additional 26 weeks but must inform their employer first to get the additional time. Your employment rights are protected during your leave – you can’t get fired – but your employer might require you to give a return date. However, certain employment types have different rules of entitlement, such as agency workers, directors and educational workers.
You can begin your maternity leave starting from 11 weeks prior to the expected childbirth week. Leave is otherwise automatically activated the day after delivery, or a month before your due date if you have to leave work due to a pregnancy-related illness.
New mothers qualify for Statutory Maternity Pay (SMP) if they:
- have been in employment with the same company for the previous half a year (26 weeks);
- earn at least an average of GBP 112 weekly;
- have given your employer a written notice at least 28 days in advance, and proof of pregnancy.
Although SMP is paid for up to 39 weeks, it differs during the entire period. It covers 90% of your average gross weekly earnings for the first six weeks, and GBP 139.58 a week or 90% of your average weekly earnings for the remainder, whichever is lower. More maternity leave and pay may be granted, however, under a company maternity scheme.
Women who don’t qualify for the SMP can check whether they fulfill the criteria to receive Maternity Allowance, a weekly payment made through Jobcentre Plus.
UK paternity leave is capped at one or two weeks for fathers and must be taken within 56 days of the birth. For the period you take from work, you will receive GBP 139.58 a day or 90% of your average weekly earnings, whichever option is lower.
Parents with newborns may also be eligible for Shared Parental Leave (SPL) and Statutory Shared Parental Pay (ShPP), two new initiatives by the British government to give parents flexibility in sharing the care of their child during the first year of their birth. Check here to determine your eligibility.
Women who are having a baby in the UK will be pleased to know that the island nation is home to numerous nurseries and crèches. Many of these will accept children from a very early age. Most will look after children from as early as 7am until 6pm to allow parents a full work day. There are also government initiatives that help families cope with the cost of daycare by offering childcare vouchers tax-free through employers. Read Expatica’s guide on the childcare system in the UK.
- National Health Service (NHS): www.nhs.uk
- Private Healthcare UK: www.privatehealth.co.uk
- Which?: www.which.co.uk
- National Child Birth Trust: www.nct.org.uk
- British Government: www.gov.uk
- HM Revenue and Customs (tax): www.hmrc.gov.uk