Post-Soviet Cold War: US-Russia spy cases
US justice officials said on Monday that they had arrested 10 people suspected of spying for Russia. Here is a list of the main such cases since 1991, when Russia became an independent state following the collapse of the Soviet Union:
- May 2010 - Russia:
A Russian court jails Gennady Sipachev for four years for providing the United States with cartographic information intended to help the targeting of cruise missiles aimed at Russia.
- 2004 - Russia:
Russian weapons specialist Igor Sutyagin is jailed for 15 years for providing intelligence on Russia's nuclear defence system to the United States. Sutyagin, who worked for Russia's US and Canada Institute, maintains he is innocent.
- 2003 - Russia:
Alexander Zaporozhsky gets 18 years in a labour camp for giving information on Russia's secret services to the US Central Intelligence Agency.
- 2002 - Russia:
A Russian court sentences Oleg Kalugin, a former KGB officer, for spying for the United States over several decades during the Soviet period. Kalugin, who has lived in the United States since 1995, is sentenced in his absence.
- 2001 - United States:
A US court sentences Robert Hanssen, a veteran of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, to life imprisonment for providing Russia with technology secrets and the identities of US spies in Russia.
George Trofimoff, a retired US intelligence official, is given a life term for providing strategic documents to the Soviet Union and then Russia while working at a US military facility in Germany.
- 2000 - Russia:
Edmond Pope, a businessman, becomes the first US national in 40 years to be sentenced for spying in Russia. He is sentenced to a 20-year term, but pardoned two days later by president Vladimir Putin as a 'goodwill gesture'.
- 1999 - United States:
Stanislav Gusev, a Russian diplomat posted to Washington, is expelled for allegedly spying on State Department meetings in the US capital.
- 1998 - United States:
David Sheldon Boone, a former employee of the US National Security Agency, is convicted of spying for the Soviet Union and then Russia between 1988 and 1998.
- 1997 - United States:
Harold James Nicholson gets 23 years in a US jail for spying for Russia. He is the highest-ranking CIA agent ever accused of espionage.
Earl Pitts, an FBI agent, is given a 27-year prison sentence for selling US defence secrets to Russia between 1987 and 1992.
- 1997: Russia
Moisei Finkel gets 12 years in a Russian jail for selling secrets about Russian submarines to the United States.
- 1994 - United States:
Aldrich Ames, a US citizen who worked for the Central Intelligence Agency for 31 years, is sentenced to life in jail for secretly channelling information to Moscow between 1985 and 1993. US officials say his activities caused the deaths of around a dozen agents working for the US.
© 2010 AFP