Climate pledges: Who's doing what?
As the Paris climate summit opens, 183 countries have submitted pledges for greenhouse gas (GHG) curbs meant to underpin a 195-nation climate rescue pact.
They account for the vast majority of the world population and are responsible for roughly 95 percent of emissions driving dangerous levels of climate change.
The voluntary pledges -- dubbed Intended Nationally Determined Contributions or INDCs -- will help cap global warming at two degrees Celsius (3.6 degrees Fahrenheit) over pre-Industrial Revolution levels, the UN-endorsed goal.
But they are inadequate to meet the target, and place the world on track for warming closer to 3C, according to recent analyses.
Among the top 10 emitters, here's who has promised what:
1) China - 24 percent of global GHG emissions
Envisages a peak in emissions "by around" 2030, and reducing carbon intensity (CO2 emitted per unit of GDP) by 60-65 percent by 2030 compared with 2005 levels.
The world's most populous nation will boost the share of non-fossil fuel in primary energy consumption from 11.2 percent in 2014 to 20 percent, and boost the volume of CO2-absorbing forest by about 4.5 billion cubic metres (159 billion cubic feet).
2) United States - 15.5 percent
Has pledged a 26-28 percent reduction in emissions from 2005 levels by 2025. Power plants are to cut carbon dioxide pollution by 32 percent from 2005 levels by 2030.
3) European Union - 10.8 percent
The 28-member bloc intends to cut emissions by at least 40 percent by 2030 over 1990 levels, and has set 27 percent targets for renewable energy supply and efficiency gains.
4) India - 6.4 percent
Plans to reduce carbon intensity by 35 percent by 2030 from 2005 levels, and to generate 40 percent of its electricity from renewable sources by the same date.
5) Russia - 4.9 percent
Has proposed cutting emissions by 25-30 percent by 2030 from 1990 levels, conditional on the pledges of other "major emitters".
6) Japan - 2.9 percent
Has pledged a 26 percent reduction in emissions from 2013 levels by 2030, with nuclear energy -- offline since the 2011 Fukushima disaster -- providing 20-22 percent of electricity by then.
Renewable electricity production, including hydro power, would be expanded to a 22-24 percent share, from 11 percent in 2014.
7) Brazil - 2.1 percent
Will cut emissions 37 percent by 2025 from 2005, and 43 percent by 2030.
8) Iran - 1.6 percent
Iran has made an unconditional pledge to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions in 2030 by four percent compared with a "business as usual" scenario.
In addition, Tehran said it would reduce emissions another eight percent if it receives financial and technology support, and if what it describes as "unjust sanctions" were lifted.
9) Indonesia - 1.6 percent
A 29 percent cut in emissions by 2030 compared with what the level would have been without any action. With financial and other help, this could be raised to 41 percent.
10) Canada - 1.5 percent
Will seek to cut emissions by 30 percent from 2005 levels by 2030.
Sources: UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Climate Action Tracker, Climate Analytics.
© 2015 AFP