Meet the man who brought down the Berlin Wall
On November 9, Guenter Schabowski pulled a sheet of paper from his pocket and read out a decree stating that visas would be freely granted to those wanting to travel outside or leave the country. The announcement led to the fall of the Berlin Wall.The Berlin Wall fell on the night of November 9, 1989 because of a hasty announcement to the press by an East German official who had hoped the measure would "save" the communist regime.
"I wouldn't say I was a hero who opened the border,” said Guenter Schabowski, now 80. “Truth be told, I acted to try to save the GDR (German Democratic Republic, as communist East Germany was officially known),"
It was nearly 7:00 pm on November 9 when Schabowski, at the time spokesman of the central committee of the ruling SED party, pulled a sheet of paper from his pocket and read out a decree stating that visas would be freely granted to those wanting to travel outside or leave the country.
"As of when?" asked an Italian journalist.
Schabowski hesitated and then improvised: "As far as I know ... as of now."
Television networks carried the news conference live and within minutes news bulletins were proclaiming that "The Wall has fallen.”
Thousands of East Berliners started streaming towards the checkpoints leading to West Berlin, where baffled East German border guards, unsure what to do, kept phoning for instructions.
Eventually as the crowds grew ever larger, one barrier went up and bewildered East Berliners, who had been unable to cross freely for 28 years, staggered into the West.
But that had not been Schabowski's intention.
We were bleeding
"On November 9, I was still a committed communist," he told reporters 20 years on. "The opening of the Wall wasn't a humanitarian but a tactical decision taken because of popular pressure.”
He added: "The very existence of the GDR was at stake. Some 300 to 500 people were fleeing abroad each day (by way of Czechoslovakia and Hungary). We were bleeding. We had to do something to regain popularity.”
The decision to open the wall followed that on October 17 by the Politburo to oust the regime's ageing leader Erich Honecker, Schabowski recalled.
"Normally in a communist party, you don't topple the secretary general -- a secretary general leaves office or dies but he isn't toppled," he said.
Because of pressure created by mass public demonstrations, "the Politburo then asked the government to prepare a law allowing for freedom to travel."
Within weeks, the bill was ready and news of it was announced on November 6.
But one sentence was badly phrased and suggested that a new body would be set up to deliver the visas, prompting new outcries, Schabowski said.
"We couldn't believe it,” he said. “We'd taken the most incredible of decisions to open the border and it was greeted by mass demonstrations! It was pure Kafka.”
We had to fix that straight away with a governmental decree, he said.
The text of the decree was agreed by the council of ministers on the morning of the 9th.
Schabowski grabbed the text and put it in his pocket.
The aim was to "announce that as late as possible during the press conference to avoid questions," he said.
But there was no holding back the tide once the news broke.
Schabowski was expelled from the party early in 1990 for bringing down the Wall and then sentenced to prison in 1997 for his earlier complicity in the shoot-to-kill policy enforced by border guards against those trying to flee to the West. He was pardoned in 2000.
Since then, he is one of the very few senior East German officials to have condemned the regime.
"On November 9, the whole thing could have finished in a bloodbath,” he said. “We were very lucky. I remember that a member of the Stasi (secret police) came over to me and said: 'Comrade Schabowski, the border is open. Nothing to report.'"